Reading Plan 

Bible Reading October 16

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Matthew 12:1--15:20

Context
Lord of the Sabbath

12:1 At that time Jesus went through the grain fields on a Sabbath. His 1  disciples were hungry, and they began to pick heads of wheat 2  and eat them. 12:2 But when the Pharisees 3  saw this they said to him, “Look, your disciples are doing what is against the law to do on the Sabbath.” 12:3 He 4  said to them, “Haven’t you read what David did when he and his companions were hungry – 12:4 how he entered the house of God and they ate 5  the sacred bread, 6  which was against the law 7  for him or his companions to eat, but only for the priests? 8  12:5 Or have you not read in the law that the priests in the temple desecrate the Sabbath and yet are not guilty? 12:6 I 9  tell you that something greater than the temple is here. 12:7 If 10  you had known what this means: ‘I want mercy and not sacrifice,’ 11  you would not have condemned the innocent. 12:8 For the Son of Man is lord 12  of the Sabbath.”

12:9 Then 13  Jesus 14  left that place and entered their synagogue. 15  12:10 A 16  man was there who had a withered 17  hand. And they asked Jesus, 18  “Is it lawful to heal on the Sabbath?” 19  so that they could accuse him. 12:11 He said to them, “Would not any one of you, if he had one sheep that fell into a pit on the Sabbath, take hold of it and lift it out? 12:12 How much more valuable is a person than a sheep! So it is lawful to do good on the Sabbath.” 12:13 Then he said to the man, “Stretch out your hand.” He stretched it out and it was restored, 20  as healthy as the other. 12:14 But the Pharisees went out and plotted against him, as to how they could assassinate 21  him.

God’s Special Servant

12:15 Now when Jesus learned of this, he went away from there. Great 22  crowds 23  followed him, and he healed them all. 12:16 But he sternly warned them not to make him known. 12:17 This fulfilled what was spoken by Isaiah the prophet: 24 

12:18Here is 25  my servant whom I have chosen,

the one I love, in whom I take great delight. 26 

I will put my Spirit on him, and he will proclaim justice to the nations.

12:19 He will not quarrel or cry out,

nor will anyone hear his voice in the streets.

12:20 He will not break a bruised reed or extinguish a smoldering wick,

until he brings justice to victory.

12:21 And in his name the Gentiles 27  will hope. 28 

Jesus and Beelzebul

12:22 Then they brought to him a demon-possessed man who was blind and mute. Jesus 29  healed him so that he could speak and see. 30  12:23 All the crowds were amazed and said, “Could this one be the Son of David?” 12:24 But when the Pharisees 31  heard this they said, “He does not cast out demons except by the power of Beelzebul, 32  the ruler 33  of demons!” 12:25 Now when Jesus 34  realized what they were thinking, he said to them, 35  “Every kingdom divided against itself is destroyed, 36  and no town or house divided against itself will stand. 12:26 So if 37  Satan casts out Satan, he is divided against himself. How then will his kingdom stand? 12:27 And if I cast out demons by Beelzebul, by whom do your sons 38  cast them 39  out? For this reason they will be your judges. 12:28 But if I cast out demons by the Spirit of God, then the kingdom of God 40  has already overtaken 41  you. 12:29 How 42  else can someone enter a strong man’s 43  house and steal his property, unless he first ties up the strong man? Then he can thoroughly plunder the house. 44  12:30 Whoever is not with me is against me, 45  and whoever does not gather with me scatters. 46  12:31 For this reason I tell you, people will be forgiven for every sin and blasphemy, 47  but the blasphemy against the Spirit will not be forgiven. 12:32 Whoever speaks a word against the Son of Man will be forgiven. 48  But whoever speaks against the Holy Spirit will not be forgiven, 49  either in this age or in the age to come.

Trees and Their Fruit

12:33 “Make a tree good and its fruit will be good, or make a tree bad 50  and its fruit will be bad, for a tree is known by its fruit. 12:34 Offspring of vipers! How are you able to say anything good, since you are evil? For the mouth speaks from what fills the heart. 12:35 The good person 51  brings good things out of his 52  good treasury, 53  and the evil person brings evil things out of his evil treasury. 12:36 I 54  tell you that on the day of judgment, people will give an account for every worthless word they speak. 12:37 For by your words you will be justified, and by your words you will be condemned.”

The Sign of Jonah

12:38 Then some of the experts in the law 55  along with some Pharisees 56  answered him, 57  “Teacher, we want to see a sign 58  from you.” 12:39 But he answered them, 59  “An evil and adulterous generation asks for a sign, but no sign will be given to it except the sign of the prophet Jonah. 12:40 For just as Jonah was in the belly of the huge fish 60  for three days and three nights, 61  so the Son of Man will be in the heart of the earth for three days and three nights. 12:41 The people 62  of Nineveh will stand up at the judgment with this generation and condemn it, because they repented when Jonah preached to them 63  – and now, 64  something greater than Jonah is here! 12:42 The queen of the South 65  will rise up at the judgment with this generation and condemn it, because she came from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon – and now, 66  something greater than Solomon is here!

The Return of the Unclean Spirit

12:43 “When 67  an unclean spirit 68  goes out of a person, 69  it passes through waterless places 70  looking for rest but 71  does not find it. 12:44 Then it says, ‘I will return to the home I left.’ 72  When it returns, 73  it finds the house 74  empty, swept clean, and put in order. 75  12:45 Then it goes and brings with it seven other spirits more evil than itself, and they go in and live there, so 76  the last state of that person is worse than the first. It will be that way for this evil generation as well!”

Jesus’ True Family

12:46 While Jesus 77  was still speaking to the crowds, 78  his mother and brothers 79  came and 80  stood outside, asking 81  to speak to him. 12:47 82  Someone 83  told him, “Look, your mother and your brothers are standing outside wanting 84  to speak to you.” 12:48 To the one who had said this, Jesus 85  replied, 86  “Who is my mother and who are my brothers?” 12:49 And pointing 87  toward his disciples he said, “Here 88  are my mother and my brothers! 12:50 For whoever does the will of my Father in heaven is 89  my brother and sister and mother.”

The Parable of the Sower

13:1 On that day after Jesus went out of the house, he sat by the lake. 13:2 And such a large crowd gathered around him that he got into a boat to sit while 90  the whole crowd stood on the shore. 13:3 He 91  told them many things in parables, 92  saying: “Listen! 93  A sower went out to sow. 94  13:4 And as he sowed, some seeds 95  fell along the path, and the birds came and devoured them. 13:5 Other 96  seeds fell on rocky ground 97  where they did not have much soil. They sprang up quickly because the soil was not deep. 98  13:6 But when the sun came up, they were scorched, and because they did not have sufficient root, they withered. 13:7 Other seeds fell among the thorns, 99  and they grew up and choked them. 100  13:8 But other seeds fell on good soil and produced grain, some a hundred times as much, some sixty, and some thirty. 13:9 The one who has ears had better listen!” 101 

13:10 Then 102  the disciples came to him and said, “Why do you speak to them in parables?” 13:11 He replied, 103  “You have been given 104  the opportunity to know 105  the secrets 106  of the kingdom of heaven, but they have not. 13:12 For whoever has will be given more, and will have an abundance. But whoever does not have, even what he has will be taken from him. 107  13:13 For this reason I speak to them in parables: Although they see they do not see, and although they hear they do not hear nor do they understand. 13:14 And concerning them the prophecy of Isaiah is fulfilled that says:

You will listen carefully 108  yet will never understand,

you will look closely 109  yet will never comprehend.

13:15 For the heart of this people has become dull;

they are hard of hearing,

and they have shut their eyes,

so that they would not see with their eyes

and hear with their ears

and understand with their hearts

and turn, and I would heal them. 110 

13:16 “But your eyes are blessed 111  because they see, and your ears because they hear. 13:17 For I tell you the truth, 112  many prophets and righteous people longed to see 113  what you see but did not see it, and to hear what you hear but did not hear it.

13:18 “So listen to the parable of the sower: 13:19 When anyone hears the word about the kingdom and does not understand it, the evil one 114  comes and snatches what was sown in his heart; 115  this is the seed sown along the path. 13:20 The 116  seed sown on rocky ground 117  is the person who hears the word and immediately receives it with joy. 13:21 But he has no root in himself and does not endure; 118  when 119  trouble or persecution comes because of the word, immediately he falls away. 13:22 The 120  seed sown among thorns is the person who hears the word, but worldly cares and the seductiveness of wealth 121  choke the word, 122  so it produces nothing. 13:23 But as for the seed sown on good soil, this is the person who hears the word and understands. He bears fruit, yielding a hundred, sixty, or thirty times what was sown.” 123 

The Parable of the Weeds

13:24 He presented them with another parable: 124  “The kingdom of heaven is like a person who sowed good seed in his field. 13:25 But while everyone was sleeping, an enemy came and sowed weeds 125  among the wheat and went away. 13:26 When 126  the plants sprouted and bore grain, then the weeds also appeared. 13:27 So the slaves 127  of the owner came and said to him, ‘Sir, didn’t you sow good seed in your field? Then where did the weeds come from?’ 13:28 He said, ‘An enemy has done this.’ So 128  the slaves replied, ‘Do you want us to go and gather them?’ 13:29 But he said, ‘No, since in gathering the weeds you may uproot the wheat with them. 13:30 Let both grow together until the harvest. At 129  harvest time I will tell the reapers, “First collect the weeds and tie them in bundles to be burned, but then 130  gather 131  the wheat into my barn.”’”

The Parable of the Mustard Seed

13:31 He gave 132  them another parable: 133  “The kingdom of heaven is like a mustard seed 134  that a man took and sowed in his field. 13:32 It is the smallest of all the seeds, but when it has grown it is the greatest garden plant and becomes a tree, 135  so that the wild birds 136  come and nest in its branches.” 137 

The Parable of the Yeast

13:33 He told them another parable: “The kingdom of heaven is like yeast that a woman took and mixed with 138  three measures 139  of flour until all the dough had risen.” 140 

The Purpose of Parables

13:34 Jesus spoke all these things in parables to the crowds; he did not speak to them without a parable. 13:35 This fulfilled what was spoken by the prophet: 141 

I will open my mouth in parables,

I will announce what has been hidden from the foundation of the world. 142 

Explanation for the Disciples

13:36 Then he left the crowds and went into the house. And his disciples came to him saying, “Explain to us the parable of the weeds in the field.” 13:37 He 143  answered, “The one who sowed the good seed is the Son of Man. 13:38 The field is the world and the good seed are the people 144  of the kingdom. The weeds are the people 145  of the evil one, 13:39 and the enemy who sows them is the devil. The harvest is the end of the age, and the reapers are angels. 13:40 As 146  the weeds are collected and burned with fire, so it will be at the end of the age. 13:41 The Son of Man will send his angels, and they will gather from his kingdom everything that causes sin as well as all lawbreakers. 147  13:42 They will throw them into the fiery furnace, 148  where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth. 13:43 Then the righteous will shine like the sun in the kingdom of their Father. 149  The one who has ears had better listen! 150 

Parables on the Kingdom of Heaven

13:44 “The kingdom of heaven is like a treasure, hidden in a field, that a person found and hid. Then because of joy he went and sold all that he had and bought that field.

13:45 “Again, the kingdom of heaven is like a merchant searching for fine pearls. 13:46 When he found a pearl of great value, he went out and sold everything he had and bought it.

13:47 “Again, the kingdom of heaven is like a net that was cast into the sea that caught all kinds of fish. 13:48 When it was full, they pulled it ashore, sat down, and put the good fish into containers and threw the bad away. 13:49 It will be this way at the end of the age. Angels will come and separate the evil from the righteous 13:50 and throw them into the fiery furnace, 151  where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.

13:51 “Have you understood all these things?” They replied, “Yes.” 13:52 Then he said to them, “Therefore every expert in the law 152  who has been trained for the kingdom of heaven is like the owner of a house who brings out of his treasure what is new and old.”

Rejection at Nazareth

13:53 Now when 153  Jesus finished these parables, he moved on from there. 13:54 Then 154  he came to his hometown 155  and began to teach the people 156  in their synagogue. 157  They 158  were astonished and said, “Where did this man get such wisdom and miraculous powers? 13:55 Isn’t this the carpenter’s son? Isn’t his mother named Mary? 159  And aren’t his brothers James, Joseph, Simon, and Judas? 13:56 And aren’t all his sisters here with us? Where did he get all this?” 160  13:57 And so they took offense at him. But Jesus said to them, “A prophet is not without honor except in his hometown and in his own house.” 13:58 And he did not do many miracles there because of their unbelief.

The Death of John the Baptist

14:1 At that time Herod the tetrarch 161  heard reports about Jesus, 14:2 and he said to his servants, “This is John the Baptist. He has been raised from the dead! And because of this, miraculous powers are at work in him.” 14:3 For Herod had arrested John, bound him, 162  and put him in prison on account of Herodias, his brother Philip’s wife, 14:4 because John had repeatedly told 163  him, “It is not lawful for you to have her.” 164  14:5 Although 165  Herod 166  wanted to kill John, 167  he feared the crowd because they accepted John as a prophet. 14:6 But on Herod’s birthday, the daughter of Herodias danced before them and pleased Herod, 14:7 so much that he promised with an oath 168  to give her whatever she asked. 14:8 Instructed by her mother, she said, “Give me the head of John the Baptist here on a platter.” 14:9 Although it grieved the king, 169  because of his oath and the dinner guests he commanded it to be given. 14:10 So 170  he sent and had John beheaded in the prison. 14:11 His 171  head was brought on a platter and given to the girl, and she brought it to her mother. 14:12 Then John’s 172  disciples came and took the body and buried it and went and told Jesus.

The Feeding of the Five Thousand

14:13 Now when Jesus heard this he went away from there privately in a boat to an isolated place. But when the crowd heard about it, 173  they followed him on foot from the towns. 174  14:14 As he got out he saw the large crowd, and he had compassion on them and healed their sick. 14:15 When evening arrived, his disciples came to him saying, “This is an isolated place 175  and the hour is already late. Send the crowds away so that they can go into the villages and buy food for themselves.” 14:16 But he 176  replied, “They don’t need to go. You 177  give them something to eat.” 14:17 They 178  said to him, “We have here only five loaves and two fish.” 14:18 “Bring them here to me,” he replied. 14:19 Then 179  he instructed the crowds to sit down on the grass. He took the five loaves and two fish, and looking up to heaven he gave thanks and broke the loaves. He gave them to the disciples, 180  who in turn gave them to the crowds. 181  14:20 They all ate and were satisfied, and they picked up the broken pieces left over, twelve baskets full. 14:21 Not counting women and children, there were about five thousand men who ate.

Walking on Water

14:22 Immediately Jesus 182  made the disciples get into the boat and go ahead of him to the other side, while he dispersed the crowds. 14:23 And after he sent the crowds away, he went up the mountain by himself to pray. When evening came, he was there alone. 14:24 Meanwhile the boat, already far from land, 183  was taking a beating from the waves because the wind was against it. 14:25 As the night was ending, 184  Jesus came to them walking on the sea. 185  14:26 When 186  the disciples saw him walking on the water 187  they were terrified and said, “It’s a ghost!” and cried out with fear. 14:27 But immediately Jesus 188  spoke to them: 189  “Have courage! It is I. Do not be afraid.” 14:28 Peter 190  said to him, 191  “Lord, if it is you, order me to come to you on the water.” 14:29 So he said, “Come.” Peter got out of the boat, walked on the water, and came toward Jesus. 14:30 But when he saw the strong wind he became afraid. And starting to sink, he cried out, 192  “Lord, save me!” 14:31 Immediately Jesus reached out his hand and caught him, saying to him, “You of little faith, why did you doubt?” 14:32 When they went up into the boat, the wind ceased. 14:33 Then those who were in the boat worshiped him, saying, “Truly you are the Son of God.”

14:34 After they had crossed over, they came to land at Gennesaret. 193  14:35 When the people 194  there recognized him, they sent word into all the surrounding area, and they brought all their sick to him. 14:36 They begged him if 195  they could only touch the edge of his cloak, and all who touched it were healed.

Breaking Human Traditions

15:1 Then Pharisees 196  and experts in the law 197  came from Jerusalem 198  to Jesus and said, 199  15:2 “Why do your disciples disobey the tradition of the elders? For they don’t wash their 200  hands when they eat.” 201  15:3 He answered them, 202  “And why do you disobey the commandment of God because of your tradition? 15:4 For God said, 203 Honor your father and mother 204  and ‘Whoever insults his father or mother must be put to death.’ 205  15:5 But you say, ‘If someone tells his father or mother, “Whatever help you would have received from me is given to God,” 206  15:6 he does not need to honor his father.’ 207  You have nullified the word of God on account of your tradition. 15:7 Hypocrites! Isaiah prophesied correctly about you when he said,

15:8This people honors me with their lips,

but their heart 208  is far from me,

15:9 and they worship me in vain,

teaching as doctrines the commandments of men.’” 209 

True Defilement

15:10 Then he called the crowd to him and said, 210  “Listen and understand. 15:11 What defiles a person is not what goes into the mouth; it is what 211  comes out of the mouth that defiles a person.” 15:12 Then the disciples came to him and said, “Do you know that when the Pharisees 212  heard this saying they were offended?” 15:13 And he replied, 213  “Every plant that my heavenly Father did not plant will be uprooted. 15:14 Leave them! They are blind guides. 214  If someone who is blind leads another who is blind, 215  both will fall into a pit.” 15:15 But Peter 216  said to him, “Explain this parable to us.” 15:16 Jesus 217  said, “Even after all this, are you still so foolish? 15:17 Don’t you understand that whatever goes into the mouth enters the stomach and then passes out into the sewer? 218  15:18 But the things that come out of the mouth come from the heart, and these things defile a person. 15:19 For out of the heart come evil ideas, murder, adultery, sexual immorality, theft, false testimony, slander. 15:20 These are the things that defile a person; it is not eating with unwashed hands that defiles a person.” 219 

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[12:1]  1 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

[12:1]  2 tn Or “heads of grain.” While the generic term στάχυς (stacus) can refer to the cluster of seeds at the top of grain such as barley or wheat, in the NT the term is restricted to wheat (L&N 3.40; BDAG 941 s.v. 1).

[12:2]  3 sn See the note on Pharisees in 3:7.

[12:3]  4 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

[12:4]  5 tc The Greek verb ἔφαγεν (efagen, “he ate”) is found in a majority of witnesses (Ì70 C D L W Θ Ë1,13 33 Ï latt sy co) in place of ἔφαγον (efagon, “they ate”), the wording found in א B pc. ἔφαγεν is most likely motivated by the parallels in Mark and Luke (both of which have the singular).

[12:4]  6 tn Grk “the bread of presentation.”

[12:4]  7 sn Jesus’ response to the charge that what his disciples were doing was against the law is one of analogy: “If David did it for his troops in a time of need, then so can I with my disciples.” Jesus is clear that on the surface there was a violation here. What is not as clear is whether he is arguing a “greater need” makes this permissible or that this was within the intention of the law all along.

[12:4]  8 sn See 1 Sam 21:1-6.

[12:6]  9 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

[12:7]  10 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

[12:7]  11 sn A quotation from Hos 6:6 (see also Matt 9:13).

[12:8]  12 tn The term “lord” is in emphatic position in the Greek text.

[12:9]  13 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

[12:9]  14 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[12:9]  15 sn See the note on synagogues in 4:23.

[12:10]  16 tn Grk “And behold.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).

[12:10]  17 sn Withered means the man’s hand was shrunken and paralyzed.

[12:10]  18 tn Grk “and they asked him, saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant and has not been translated. The referent of the pronoun (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[12:10]  19 sn The background for this is the view that only if life was endangered should one attempt to heal on the Sabbath (see the Mishnah, m. Shabbat 6.3; 12.1; 18.3; 19.2; m. Yoma 8.6).

[12:13]  20 sn The passive was restored points to healing by God. Now the question became: Would God exercise his power through Jesus, if what Jesus was doing were wrong? Note also Jesus’ “labor.” He simply spoke and it was so.

[12:14]  21 tn Grk “destroy.”

[12:15]  22 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

[12:15]  23 tc א B pc lat read only πολλοί (polloi, “many”) here, the first hand of N reads ὄχλοι (ocloi, “crowds”), while virtually all the rest of the witnesses have ὄχλοι πολλοί (ocloi polloi, “great crowds”). In spite of the good quality of both א and B (especially in combination), and the testimony of the Latin witnesses, the longer reading is most likely correct; the shorter readings were probably due to homoioteleuton.

[12:17]  24 tn Grk “so that what was said by Isaiah the prophet would be fulfilled, saying.” This final clause, however, is part of one sentence in Greek (vv. 15b-17) and is thus not related only to v. 16. The participle λέγοντος (legontos) is redundant and has not been translated.

[12:18]  25 tn Grk “Behold my servant.”

[12:18]  26 tn Grk “in whom my soul is well pleased.”

[12:21]  27 tn Or “the nations” (the same Greek word may be translated “Gentiles” or “nations”).

[12:21]  28 sn Verses 18-21 are a quotation from Isa 42:1-4.

[12:22]  29 tn Grk “And he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[12:22]  30 tn Grk “demoniac, and he healed him, so that the mute man spoke and saw.”

[12:24]  31 sn See the note on Pharisees in 3:7.

[12:24]  32 tn Grk “except by Beelzebul.”

[12:24]  33 tn Or “prince.”

[12:25]  34 tc The majority of mss read ὁ ᾿Ιησοῦς (Jo Ihsous, “Jesus”), which clarifies who is the subject of the sentence. Although the shorter text is attested in far fewer witnesses (Ì21 א B D 892* sys,c sa bo), both the pedigree of the mss and the strong internal evidence (viz., scribes were not prone to intentionally delete the name of Jesus) argue for the omission of Jesus’ name. The name has been included in the translation, however, for clarity.

[12:25]  35 sn Jesus here demonstrated the absurdity of the thinking of the religious leaders who maintained that he was in league with Satan and that he actually derived his power from the devil. He first teaches (vv. 25-28) that if he casts out demons by the ruler of the demons, then in reality Satan is fighting against himself, with the result that his kingdom has come to an end. He then teaches (v. 29) about tying up the strong man to prove that he does not need to align himself with the devil because he is more powerful. Jesus defeated Satan at his temptation (4:1-11) and by his exorcisms he clearly demonstrated himself to be stronger than the devil. The passage reveals the desperate condition of the religious leaders, who in their hatred for Jesus end up attributing the work of the Holy Spirit to Satan (a position for which they will be held accountable, 12:31-32).

[12:25]  36 tn Or “is left in ruins.”

[12:26]  37 tn This first class condition, the first of three “if” clauses in the following verses, presents the example vividly as if it were so. In fact, all three conditions in these verses are first class. The examples are made totally parallel. The expected answer is that Satan’s kingdom will not stand, so the suggestion makes no sense. Satan would not seek to heal.

[12:27]  38 sn Most read your sons as a reference to Jewish exorcists (cf. “your followers,” L&N 9.4), but more likely this is a reference to the disciples of Jesus themselves, who are also Jewish and have been healing as well (R. J. Shirock, “Whose Exorcists are they? The Referents of οἱ υἱοὶ ὑμῶν at Matthew 12:27/Luke 11:19,” JSNT 46 [1992]: 41-51). If this is a reference to the disciples, then Jesus’ point is that it is not only him, but those associated with him whose power the hearers must assess. The following reference to judging also favors this reading.

[12:27]  39 tn The pronoun “them” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

[12:28]  40 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus. It is a realm in which Jesus rules and to which those who trust him belong.

[12:28]  41 tn The phrase ἔφθασεν ἐφ᾿ ὑμᾶς (efqasen efJuma") is quite important. Does it mean merely “approach” (which would be reflected in a translation like “has come near to you”) or actually “come upon” (as in the translation given above, “has already overtaken you,” which has the added connotation of suddenness)? Is the arrival of the kingdom merely anticipated or already in process? Two factors favor arrival over anticipation here. First, the prepositional phrase ἐφ᾿ ὑμᾶς (efJumas, “upon you”) in the Greek text suggests arrival (Dan 4:24, 28 Theodotion). Second, the following illustration in v. 29 looks at the healing as portraying Satan being overrun. So the presence of God’s authority has arrived. See also L&N 13.123 for the translation of φθάνω (fqanw) as “to happen to already, to come upon, to come upon already.”

[12:29]  42 tn Grk “Or how can.”

[12:29]  43 sn The strong man here pictures Satan.

[12:29]  44 sn Some see the imagery here as similar to Eph 4:7-10, although no opponents are explicitly named in that passage. Jesus has the victory over Satan. Jesus’ acts of healing mean that the war is being won and the kingdom is coming.

[12:30]  45 sn Whoever is not with me is against me. The call here is to join the victor. Failure to do so means that one is being destructive. Responding to Jesus is the issue.

[12:30]  46 sn For the image of scattering, see Pss. Sol. 17:18.

[12:31]  47 tn Grk “every sin and blasphemy will be forgiven men.”

[12:32]  48 tn Grk “it will be forgiven him.”

[12:32]  49 tn Grk “it will not be forgiven him.”

[12:33]  50 tn Grk “rotten.” The word σαπρός, modifying both “tree” and “fruit,” can also mean “diseased” (L&N 65.28).

[12:35]  51 tn The Greek text reads here ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpos). The term is generic referring to any person.

[12:35]  52 tn Grk “the”; the Greek article has been translated here and in the following clause (“his evil treasury”) as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215).

[12:35]  53 sn The treasury here is a metaphorical reference to a person’s heart (cf. BDAG 456 s.v. θησαυρός 1.b and the parallel passage in Luke 6:45).

[12:36]  54 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

[12:38]  55 tn Or “Then some of the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 2:4.

[12:38]  56 tn Grk “and Pharisees.” The word “some” before “Pharisees” has been supplied for clarification.

[12:38]  57 tn Grk “answered him, saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant, but the syntax of the sentence was changed to conform to English style.

[12:38]  58 sn What exactly this sign would have been, given what Jesus was already doing, is not clear. But here is where the fence-sitters reside, refusing to commit to him.

[12:39]  59 tn Grk “But answering, he said to them.” This construction is somewhat redundant in English and has been simplified in the translation.

[12:40]  60 tn Grk “large sea creature.”

[12:40]  61 sn A quotation from Jonah 1:17.

[12:41]  62 tn Grk “men”; the word here (ἀνήρ, anhr) usually indicates males or husbands, but occasionally is used in a generic sense of people in general, as here (cf. BDAG 79 s.v. 1.a, 2).

[12:41]  63 tn Grk “at the preaching of Jonah.”

[12:41]  64 tn Grk “behold.”

[12:42]  65 sn On the queen of the South see 1 Kgs 10:1-3 and 2 Chr 9:1-12, as well as Josephus, Ant. 8.6.5-6 (8.165-175). The South most likely refers to modern southwest Arabia, possibly the eastern part of modern Yemen, although there is an ancient tradition reflected in Josephus which identifies this geo-political entity as Ethiopia.

[12:42]  66 tn Grk “behold.”

[12:43]  67 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

[12:43]  68 sn Unclean spirit refers to an evil spirit.

[12:43]  69 tn Grk “man.” This is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo"), referring to both males and females. This same use occurs in v. 45.

[12:43]  70 sn The background for the reference to waterless places is not entirely clear, though some Jewish texts suggest spirits must have a place to dwell, but not with water (Luke 8:29-31; Tob 8:3). Some suggest that the image of the desert or deserted cities as the places demons dwell is where this idea started (Isa 13:21; 34:14).

[12:43]  71 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

[12:44]  72 tn Grk “I will return to my house from which I came.”

[12:44]  73 tn Grk “comes.”

[12:44]  74 tn The words “the house” are not in Greek but are implied.

[12:44]  75 sn The image of the house empty, swept clean, and put in order refers to the life of the person from whom the demon departed. The key to the example appears to be that no one else has been invited in to dwell. If an exorcism occurs and there is no response to God, then the way is free for the demon to return. Some see the reference to exorcism as more symbolic; thus the story’s only point is about responding to Jesus. This is possible and certainly is an application of the passage.

[12:45]  76 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the concluding point of the story.

[12:46]  77 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[12:46]  78 tn Grk “crowds, behold, his mother.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).

[12:46]  79 sn The issue of whether Jesus had brothers (siblings) has had a long history in the church. Epiphanius, in the 4th century, argued that Mary was a perpetual virgin and had no offspring other than Jesus. Others argued that these brothers were really cousins. Nothing in the text suggests any of this. See also John 7:3.

[12:46]  80 tn “His mother and brothers came and” is a translation of “behold, his mother and brothers came.”

[12:46]  81 tn Grk “seeking.”

[12:47]  82 tc A few ancient mss and versions lack this verse (א* B L Γ pc ff1 k sys,c sa). The witness of א and B is especially strong, but internal considerations override this external evidence. Both v. 46 and 47 end with the word λαλῆσαι (“to speak”), so early scribes probably omitted the verse through homoioteleuton. The following verses make little sense without v. 47; its omission is too hard a reading. Thus v. 47 was most likely part of the original text.

[12:47]  83 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

[12:47]  84 tn Grk “seeking.”

[12:48]  85 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[12:48]  86 tn Grk “And answering, he said to the one who had said this.” This construction is somewhat redundant in English and has been simplified in the translation. Here δέ (de) at the beginning of the clause has not been translated.

[12:49]  87 tn Grk “extending his hand.”

[12:49]  88 tn Grk “Behold my mother and my brothers.”

[12:50]  89 tn The pleonastic pronoun αὐτός (autos, “he”) which precedes this verb has not been translated.

[13:2]  90 tn Grk “and all the crowd.” The clause in this phrase, although coordinate in terms of grammar, is logically subordinate to the previous clause.

[13:3]  91 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

[13:3]  92 sn Though parables can contain a variety of figures of speech (cf. the remainder of chapter 13), many times they are simply stories that attempt to teach spiritual truth (which is unknown to the hearers) by using a comparison with something known to the hearers. In general, parables usually advance a single idea, though there may be many parts and characters in a single parable and subordinate ideas may expand the main idea further. The beauty of using the parable as a teaching device is that it draws the listener into the story, elicits an evaluation, and demands a response.

[13:3]  93 tn Grk “Behold.”

[13:3]  94 sn A sower went out to sow. The background for this well-known parable, drawn from a typical scene in the Palestinian countryside, is a field through which a well-worn path runs. Sowing would occur in late fall or early winter (October to December) in the rainy season, looking for sprouting in April or May and a June harvest. The use of seed as a figure for God’s giving life has OT roots (Isa 55:10-11). The point of the parable of the sower is to illustrate the various responses to the message of the kingdom of God.

[13:4]  95 tn In Matthew’s version of this parable, plural pronouns are used to refer to the seed in v. 4 (αὐτά [Jaauta]), although the collective singular is used in v. 5 and following (indicated by the singular verbs like ἔπεσεν [epesen]). For the sake of consistency in English, plural pronouns referring to the seed are used in the translation throughout the Matthean account. In both Mark and Luke the collective singular is used consistently throughout (cf. Mark 4:1-9; Luke 8:4-8).

[13:5]  96 tn Here and in vv. 7 and 8 δέ (de) has not been translated.

[13:5]  97 sn The rocky ground in Palestine would be a limestone base lying right under the soil.

[13:5]  98 tn Grk “it did not have enough depth of earth.”

[13:7]  99 sn Palestinian weeds like these thorns could grow up to six feet in height and have a major root system.

[13:7]  100 sn That is, crowded out the good plants.

[13:9]  101 tn The translation “had better listen!” captures the force of the third person imperative more effectively than the traditional “let him hear,” which sounds more like a permissive than an imperative to the modern English reader. This was Jesus’ common expression to listen and heed carefully (cf. Matt 11:15, 13:43; Mark 4:9, 23; Luke 8:8, 14:35).

[13:10]  102 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

[13:11]  103 tn Grk “And answering, he said to them.” This construction is somewhat redundant in English and has been simplified in the translation. Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

[13:11]  104 tn This is an example of a “divine passive,” with God understood to be the source of the revelation (see ExSyn 437-38).

[13:11]  105 tn Grk “to you it has been given to know.” The dative pronoun occurs first, in emphatic position in the Greek text, although this position is awkward in contemporary English.

[13:11]  106 tn Grk “the mysteries.”

[13:12]  107 sn What he has will be taken from him. The meaning is that the one who accepts Jesus’ teaching concerning his person and the kingdom will receive a share in the kingdom now and even more in the future, but for the one who rejects Jesus’ words, the opportunity that that person presently possesses with respect to the kingdom will someday be taken away forever.

[13:14]  108 tn Grk “with hearing,” a cognate dative that intensifies the action of the main verb “you will listen” (ExSyn 168-69).

[13:14]  109 tn Grk “look by looking.” The participle is redundant, functioning to intensify the force of the main verb.

[13:15]  110 sn A quotation from Isa 6:9-10. Thus parables both conceal or reveal depending on whether one is open to hearing what they teach.

[13:16]  111 sn This beatitude highlights the great honor bestowed on the disciples to share in this salvation.

[13:17]  112 tn Grk “truly (ἀμήν, amhn) I say to you.”

[13:17]  113 sn This is what past prophets and righteous people had wanted very much to see, yet the fulfillment had come to the disciples. This remark is like 1 Pet 1:10-12 or Heb 1:1-2.

[13:19]  114 sn Interestingly, the synoptic parallels each use a different word for Satan here: Mark 4:15 has “Satan,” while Luke 8:12 has “the devil.” This illustrates the fluidity of the gospel tradition in often using synonyms at the same point of the parallel tradition.

[13:19]  115 sn The word of Jesus has the potential to save if it germinates in a person’s heart, something the devil is very much against.

[13:20]  116 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

[13:20]  117 tn Grk “The one sown on rocky ground, this is the one.” The next two statements like this one have this same syntactical structure.

[13:21]  118 tn Grk “is temporary.”

[13:21]  119 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

[13:22]  120 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

[13:22]  121 tn Grk “the deceitfulness of riches.” Cf. BDAG 99 s.v. ἀπάτη 1, “the seduction which comes from wealth.”

[13:22]  122 sn That is, their concern for spiritual things is crowded out by material things.

[13:23]  123 tn The Greek is difficult to translate because it switches from a generic “he” to three people within this generic class (thus, something like: “Who indeed bears fruit and yields, in one instance a hundred times, in another, sixty times, in another, thirty times”).

[13:24]  124 tn Grk “He set before them another parable, saying.” The participle λέγων (legwn) is redundant and has not been translated.

[13:25]  125 tn Grk “sowed darnel.” The Greek term ζιζάνιον (zizanion) refers to an especially undesirable weed that looks like wheat but has poisonous seeds (L&N 3.30).

[13:26]  126 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

[13:27]  127 tn See the note on the word “slave” in 8:9.

[13:28]  128 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the owner’s statement.

[13:30]  129 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

[13:30]  130 tn Grk “but.”

[13:30]  131 tn Grk “burned, but gather.”

[13:31]  132 tn Grk “put before.”

[13:31]  133 tn Grk “He set before them another parable, saying.” The participle λέγων (legwn) is redundant and has not been translated.

[13:31]  134 sn The mustard seed was noted for its tiny size.

[13:32]  135 sn This is rhetorical hyperbole, since technically a mustard plant is not a tree. This could refer to one of two types of mustard plant popular in Palestine and would be either ten or twenty-five ft (3 or 7.5 m) tall.

[13:32]  136 tn Grk “the birds of the sky” or “the birds of the heaven”; the Greek word οὐρανός (ouranos) may be translated either “sky” or “heaven,” depending on the context. The idiomatic expression “birds of the sky” refers to wild birds as opposed to domesticated fowl (cf. BDAG 809 s.v. πετεινόν).

[13:32]  137 sn The point of the parable seems to be that while the kingdom of God may appear to have insignificant and unnoticeable beginnings (i.e., in the ministry of Jesus), it will someday (i.e., at the second advent) be great and quite expansive. The kingdom, however, is not to be equated with the church, but rather the church is an expression of the kingdom. Also, there is important OT background in the image of the mustard seed that grew and became a tree: Ezek 17:22-24 pictures the reemergence of the Davidic house where people can find calm and shelter. Like the mustard seed, it would start out small but grow to significant size.

[13:33]  138 tn Grk “hid in.”

[13:33]  139 sn This measure was a saton, the Greek name for the Hebrew term “seah.” Three of these was a very large quantity of flour, since a saton is a little over 16 pounds (7 kg) of dry measure (or 13.13 liters). So this was over 47 lbs (21 kg) of flour total, enough to feed over a hundred people.

[13:33]  140 tn Grk “it was all leavened.”

[13:35]  141 tc A few important mss (א* Θ Ë1,13 33) identify the prophet as Isaiah, a reading that is significantly harder than the generic “prophet” because the source of this prophecy is not Isaiah but Asaph in Ps 78. Jerome mentioned some mss that had “Asaph” here, though none are known to exist today. This problem is difficult because of the temptation for scribes to delete the reference to Isaiah in order to clear up a discrepancy. Indeed, the vast majority of witnesses have only “the prophet” here (א1 B C D L W 0233 0242 Ï lat sy co). However, as B. M. Metzger points out, “if no prophet were originally named, more than one scribe might have been prompted to insert the name of the best known prophet – something which has, in fact, happened elsewhere more than once” (TCGNT 27). In light of the paucity of evidence for the reading ᾿Ησαΐου, as well as the proclivity of scribes to add his name, it is probably best to consider the shorter reading as authentic.

[13:35]  142 sn A quotation from Ps 78:2.

[13:37]  143 tn Grk “And answering, he said.” This construction is somewhat redundant in English and has been simplified in the translation. Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

[13:38]  144 tn Grk “the sons of the kingdom.” This idiom refers to people who should properly be, or were traditionally regarded as, a part of God’s kingdom. L&N 11.13 translates the phrase: “people of God’s kingdom, God’s people.”

[13:38]  145 tn Grk “the sons of the evil one.” See the preceding note on the phrase “people of the kingdom” earlier in this verse, which is the opposite of this phrase. See also L&N 9.4; 11.13; 11.14.

[13:40]  146 tn Grk “Therefore as.” Here οὖν (oun) has not been translated.

[13:41]  147 tn Grk “the ones who practice lawlessness.”

[13:42]  148 sn A quotation from Dan 3:6.

[13:43]  149 sn An allusion to Dan 12:3.

[13:43]  150 tn The translation “had better listen!” captures the force of the third person imperative more effectively than the traditional “let him hear,” which sounds more like a permissive than an imperative to the modern English reader. This was Jesus’ common expression to listen and heed carefully (cf. Matt 11:15, 13:9; Mark 4:9, 23; Luke 8:8, 14:35).

[13:50]  151 sn An allusion to Dan 3:6.

[13:52]  152 tn Or “every scribe.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 2:4. It is possible that the term translated “expert in the law” (traditionally, “scribe”) here is a self-description used by the author, Matthew, to represent his role in conveying the traditions about Jesus to his intended audience. See David E. Orton, The Understanding Scribe [JSNTSup].

[13:53]  153 tn Grk “Now it happened that when.” The introductory phrase καὶ ἐγένετο (kai egeneto, “it happened that”) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

[13:54]  154 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “Then.”

[13:54]  155 sn Jesus’ hometown (where he spent his childhood years) was Nazareth, about 20 miles (30 km) southwest of Capernaum.

[13:54]  156 tn Grk “them”; the referent (the people) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[13:54]  157 sn See the note on synagogues in 4:23. Jesus undoubtedly took the opportunity on this occasion to speak about his person and mission, and the relation of both to OT fulfillment.

[13:54]  158 tn Grk “synagogue, so that they.” Here ὥστε (Jwste) has not been translated. Instead a new sentence was started in the translation.

[13:55]  159 sn The reference to Jesus as the carpenter’s son is probably derogatory, indicating that they knew Jesus only as a common laborer like themselves. The reference to his mother…Mary (even though Jesus’ father was probably dead by this point) appears to be somewhat derogatory, for a man was not regarded as his mother’s son in Jewish usage unless an insult was intended (cf. Judg 11:1-2; John 4:41; 8:41; 9:29).

[13:56]  160 tn Grk “Where did he get these things?”

[14:1]  161 sn A tetrarch, a ruler with rank and authority lower than a king, ruled only with the approval of the Roman authorities. This was roughly equivalent to being governor of a region. Several times in the NT, Herod, tetrarch of Galilee, is called a king (Matt 14:9, Mark 6:14-29), reflecting popular usage rather than an official title.

[14:3]  162 tc ‡ Most witnesses (א2 C D L W Z Θ 0106 Ë1,13 33 Ï lat) read αὐτόν (auton, “him”) here as a way of clarifying the direct object; various important witnesses lack the word, however (א* B 700 pc ff1 h q). The original wording most likely lacked it, but it has been included here due to English style. NA27 includes the word in brackets, indicating reservations about its authenticity.

[14:4]  163 tn The imperfect tense verb is here rendered with an iterative force.

[14:4]  164 sn This marriage of Herod to his brother Philip’s wife was a violation of OT law (Lev 18:16; 20:21). In addition, both Herod Antipas and Herodias had each left marriages to enter into this union.

[14:5]  165 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

[14:5]  166 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Herod) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[14:5]  167 tn Grk “him” (also in the following phrase, Grk “accepted him”); in both cases the referent (John) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[14:7]  168 tn The Greek text reads here ὁμολογέω (Jomologew); though normally translated “acknowledge, confess,” BDAG (708 s.v. 1) lists “assure, promise with an oath” for certain contexts such as here.

[14:9]  169 tn Grk “and being grieved, the king commanded.”

[14:10]  170 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of previous action(s) in the narrative.

[14:11]  171 tn Grk “And his”; the referent (John the Baptist) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[14:12]  172 tn Grk “his”; the referent (John) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here καί (kai) has been translated as “Then.”

[14:13]  173 tn The word “it” is not in the Greek text but is implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

[14:13]  174 tn Or “cities.”

[14:15]  175 tn Or “a desert” (meaning a deserted or desolate area with sparse vegetation).

[14:16]  176 tc ‡ The majority of witnesses read ᾿Ιησοῦς (Ihsous, “Jesus”) here, perhaps to clarify the subject. Although only a few Greek mss, along with several versional witnesses (א* D Zvid 579 1424 pc e k sys,c,p sa bo), lack the name of Jesus, the omission does not seem to be either accidental or malicious and is therefore judged to be most likely the original reading. Nevertheless, a decision is difficult. NA27 has the word in brackets, indicating doubts as to its authenticity.

[14:16]  177 tn Here the pronoun ὑμεῖς (Jumeis) is used, making “you” in the translation emphatic.

[14:17]  178 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

[14:19]  179 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “Then.”

[14:19]  180 tn Grk “And after instructing the crowds to recline for a meal on the grass, after taking the five loaves and the two fish, after looking up to heaven, he gave thanks, and after breaking the loaves he gave them to the disciples.” Although most of the participles are undoubtedly attendant circumstance, there are but two indicative verbs – “he gave thanks” and “he gave.” The structure of the sentence thus seems to focus on these two actions and has been translated accordingly.

[14:19]  181 tn Grk “to the disciples, and the disciples to the crowds.”

[14:22]  182 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[14:24]  183 tn Grk “The boat was already many stades from the land.” A stade (στάδιον, stadion) was a unit of distance about 607 feet (187 meters) long.

[14:25]  184 tn Grk “In the fourth watch of the night,” that is, between 3 a.m. and 6 a.m.

[14:25]  185 tn Or “on the lake.”

[14:26]  186 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

[14:26]  187 tn Grk “on the sea”; or “on the lake.” The translation “water” has been used here for stylistic reasons (cf. the same phrase in v. 25).

[14:27]  188 tc Most witnesses have ὁ ᾿Ιησοῦς (Jo Ihsous, “Jesus”), while a few lack the words (א* D 073 892 pc ff1 syc sa bo). Although such additions are often suspect (due to liturgical influences, piety, or for the sake of clarity), in this case it is likely that ὁ ᾿Ιησοῦς dropped out accidentally. Apart from a few albeit important witnesses, as noted above, the rest of the tradition has either ὁ ᾿Ιησοῦς αὐτοῖς (Jo Ihsous autois) or αὐτοῖς ὁ ᾿Ιησοῦς (autois Jo Ihsous). In uncial letters, with Jesus’ name as a nomen sacrum, this would have been written as autoisois_ or ois_autois. Thus homoioteleuton could explain the reason for the omission of Jesus’ name.

[14:27]  189 tn Grk “he said to them, saying.” The participle λέγων (legwn) is redundant and has not been translated.

[14:28]  190 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

[14:28]  191 tn Grk “answering him, Peter said.” The participle ἀποκριθείς (apokriqeis) is redundant and has not been translated.

[14:30]  192 tn Grk “he cried out, saying.” The participle λέγων (legwn) is redundant and has not been translated.

[14:34]  193 sn Gennesaret was a fertile plain south of Capernaum (see also Mark 6:53). The Sea of Galilee was also sometimes known as the Sea of Gennesaret (Luke 5:1).

[14:35]  194 tn Grk “men”; the word here (ἀνήρ, anhr) usually indicates males or husbands, but occasionally is used in a generic sense of people in general, as here (cf. BDAG 79 s.v. 1.a, 2).

[14:36]  195 tn Grk “asked that they might touch.”

[15:1]  196 sn See the note on Pharisees in 3:7.

[15:1]  197 tn Or “and the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 2:4.

[15:1]  198 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

[15:1]  199 tn The participle λέγοντες (legontes) has been translated as a finite verb so that its telic (i.e., final or conclusive) force can be more easily detected: The Pharisees and legal experts came to Jesus in order to speak with him.

[15:2]  200 tc ‡ Although most witnesses read the genitive plural pronoun αὐτῶν (autwn, “their”), it may have been motivated by clarification (as it is in the translation above). Several other authorities do not have the pronoun, however (א B Δ 073 Ë1 579 700 892 1424 pc f g1); the lack of an unintentional oversight as the reason for omission strengthens their combined testimony in this shorter reading. NA27 has the pronoun in brackets, indicating doubts as to its authenticity.

[15:2]  201 tn Grk “when they eat bread.”

[15:3]  202 tn Grk “But answering, he said to them.”

[15:4]  203 tc Most mss (א*,2 C L W 0106 33 Ï) have an expanded introduction here; instead of “For God said,” they read “For God commanded, saying” (ὁ γὰρ θεὸς ἐνετείλατο λέγων, Jo gar qeo" eneteilato legwn). But such expansions are generally motivated readings; in this case, most likely it was due to the wording of the previous verse (“the commandment of God”) that caused early scribes to add to the text. Although it is possible that other witnesses reduced the text to the simple εἶπεν (eipen, “[God] said”) because of perceived redundancy with the statement in v. 3, such is unlikely in light of the great variety and age of these authorities (א1 B D Θ 073 Ë1,13 579 700 892 pc lat co, as well as other versions and fathers).

[15:4]  204 sn A quotation from Exod 20:12; Deut 5:16.

[15:4]  205 sn A quotation from Exod 21:17; Lev 20:9.

[15:5]  206 tn Grk “is a gift,” that is, something dedicated to God.

[15:6]  207 tc The logic of v. 5 would seem to demand that both father and mother are in view in v. 6. Indeed, the majority of mss (C L W Θ 0106 Ë1 Ï) have “or his mother” (ἢ τὴν μητέρα αὐτοῦ, h thn mhtera autou) after “honor his father” here. However, there are significant witnesses that have variations on this theme (καὶ τὴν μητέρα αὐτοῦ [kai thn mhtera autou, “and his mother”] in Φ 565 1241 pc and ἢ τὴν μητέρα [“or mother”] in 073 Ë13 33 579 700 892 pc), which is usually an indication of a predictable addition to the text rather than an authentic reading. Further, the shorter reading (without any mention of “mother”) is found in early and important witnesses (א B D sa). Although it is possible that the shorter reading came about accidentally (due to the repetition of –ερα αὐτοῦ), the evidence more strongly suggests that the longer readings were intentional scribal alterations.

[15:8]  208 tn The term “heart” is a collective singular in the Greek text.

[15:9]  209 sn A quotation from Isa 29:13.

[15:10]  210 tn Grk “And calling the crowd, he said to them.” The participle προσκαλεσάμενος (proskalesamenos) has been translated as attendant circumstance. The emphasis here is upon Jesus’ speaking to the crowd.

[15:11]  211 tn Grk “but what.”

[15:12]  212 sn See the note on Pharisees in 3:7.

[15:13]  213 tn Grk “And answering, he said.”

[15:14]  214 tc ‡ Most mss, some of which are significant, read “They are blind guides of the blind” (א1 C L W Z Θ Ë1,13 33 Ï lat). The shorter reading is read by א*,2 B D 0237 Epiph. There is a distinct possibility of omission due to homoioarcton in א*; this manuscript has a word order variation which puts the word τυφλοί (tufloi, “blind”) right before the word τυφλῶν (tuflwn, “of the blind”). This does not explain the shorter reading, however, in the other witnesses, of which B and D are quite weighty. Internal considerations suggest that the shorter reading is original: “of the blind” was likely added by scribes to balance this phrase with Jesus’ following statement about the blind leading the blind, which clearly has two groups in view. A decision is difficult, but internal considerations here along with the strength of the witnesses argue that the shorter reading is more likely original. NA27 places τυφλῶν in brackets, indicating doubts as to its authenticity.

[15:14]  215 tn Grk “If blind leads blind.”

[15:15]  216 tn Grk “And answering, Peter said to him.” This construction is somewhat redundant in English and has been simplified in the translation.

[15:16]  217 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

[15:17]  218 tn Or “into the latrine.”

[15:20]  219 tn Grk “but to eat with unwashed hands does not defile a person.”



TIP #15: Use the Strong Number links to learn about the original Hebrew and Greek text. [ALL]
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